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An Introduction to English Syntax

This spectacular resource for pupils offers a step-by-step, sensible introduction to British syntax and syntactic principles, as produced by Chomsky in the last 15 years. Assuming little if any prior history in syntax, Andrew Radford outlines the core ideas and how they might be used to identify various areas of English syntax. This is a great abridged version of Radford's major new textbook Analysing English Paragraphs (also posted by Cambridge University Press), and will be welcome as a useful introduction to current syntactic theory. andrew radford is Teacher & Mind of the Division of Dialect and Linguistics at the School of Essex. His latest publications contain Minimalist Format: Exploring the Structure of The english language (Cambridge, 2004) and The english language Syntax: An Introduction (Cambridge, 2004).

An Introduction to English

Sentence Structure

в—Џ

ANDREW RADFORD

School of Essex

CAMBRIDGE UNIVERSITY PRESS

Cambridge, New York, Melbourne, Madrid, Shawl Town, Singapore, SГЈo Paulo Cambridge School Press

The Edinburgh Building, Cambridge CB2 8RU, UK

Published in the usa of America by Cambridge University Press, New York www.cambridge.org

Information on this kind of title: www.cambridge.org/9780521516938

В© Andrew Radford 2009

This newsletter is in copyright. Subject to lawful exception and to the supply of relevant ordinaire licensing negotiating, no imitation of virtually any part will take place with no written permission of Cambridge University Press. First published in print file format 2009

ISBN-13

978-0-511-50666-6

e-book (EBL)

ISBN-13

978-0-521-51693-8

hardback

ISBN-13

978-0-521-73190-4

paperback

Cambridge University Press has no responsibility for the persistence or perhaps accuracy of urls pertaining to external or perhaps third-party web sites referred to through this publication, and guarantee that virtually any content in such websites is, or will remain, exact or suitable.

Contents

Preface

1 Grammar

1 . one particular

1 . 2

1 . three or more

1 . 5

1 . a few

1 . six

1 . six

1 . almost 8

1 . being unfaithful

Overview

Traditional grammar: Groups and functions

Universal Grammar

The Language Faculty

Principles of Universal Sentence structure

Parameters

Parameter-setting

Summary

Bibliographical background

Workbook section

2 Structure

2 . 1

2 . 2

installment payments on your 3

2 . 4

2 . 5

2 . 6

2 . 7

installment payments on your 8

2 . 9

2 . 10

Overview

Phrases

Clauses

Clauses made up of complementisers

Screening structure

Structural relations as well as the syntax of polarity products

The c-command condition about binding

Uncovered phrase structure

Summary

Bibliographical background

Workbook section

3 Null matters

3. you

3. a couple of

3. 3

3. 5

3. 5

3. 6th

3. six

3. eight

3. being unfaithful

3. 10

Overview

Null subjects

Null auxiliaries

Null T in finite condition

Null To in infinitive clauses

Null C in finite condition

Null C in infinitive clauses

Substandard clauses

Null determiners and quantifiers

Overview

page viii

1

you

1

14

15

19

22

twenty six

30

32

33

39

39

39

44

forty-nine

51

49

62

64

66

69

70

81

81

81

86

fifth there’s 89

94

ninety six

101

one zero five

108

111

v

ni

contents

several. 11

Bibliographical background

Workbook section

four Head movement

4. 1

4. a couple of

4. 3

4. some

4. 5

4. six

4. 7

4. 8

4. being unfaithful

4. 15

Overview

T-to-C movement

Motion as copying and removal

V-to-T motion

Head movement

Auxiliary Bringing up

Another take a look at negation

do -support

Summary

Bibliographical backdrop

Workbook section

5 Wh-movement

5. one particular

5. two

5. three or more

5. some

5. a few

5. 6

5. six

5. almost 8

5. being unfaithful

5. 10

Overview

Wh-questions

Wh-movement as copying and deletion

Driving wh-movement and auxiliary inversion

Pied-piping of material in the domain name of a wh-word

Pied-piping of any superordinate preposition

Long-distance wh-movement

Multiple wh-questions

Summary

Bibliographical background

Workbook section

six A-movement

six. 1

6th. 2

6. 3

6. 4

6th. 5

six. 6

six. 7

6. 8

six. 9

6th. 10

6. 11

Summary

Subjects in Belfast British

Idioms

Debate...

References: Zanuttini, R. (1991) ‘Syntactic homes of sentential negation: A comparative research of

Relationship languages', PhD diss., University or college of Pennsylvania.

Zlati´c, L. (1997) ‘The structure in the Serbian Noun Phrase', PhD diss., University or college of

Arizona, Austin.

Zwart, C. M. -W. (2001) ‘Syntactic and phonological verb movement', Syntax 4: 34–62.

Zwicky, A. (2002) ‘I wonder the type of structure that this kind of example illustrates', in G. Beaver, T. D. Casillas Mart´ınez, W. Z. Clark & T. Kaufmann (eds) The

Building of Which means, CSLI Guides, Stanford, pp



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