Essay about BIOL2300 Adaptive Immunity

Adaptive Immunity

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Overview of Adaptive Immunity

• Adaptive immunity is the human body's ability to

recognize and guard itself against distinct

invaders and their products

• Five attributes of adaptable immunity

–

–

–

–

–

Specificity

Inducibility

Clonality

Unresponsiveness to self

Memory

В© 2012 Pearson Education Incorporation.

Overview of Adaptive Immunity

• Involves activity of lymphocytes

• Two primary types of lymphocytes

– B lymphocytes (B cells)

– Fully developed in the bone marrow

– T lymphocytes (T cells)

– Mature in the thymus

• Two styles of adaptive immune replies

– Humoral immune reactions works to get rid of extracellular antigens

– Bacterias, toxins, infections in blood vessels, tissue liquids

– Cell-mediated immune reactions deals with antigens

residing within a host cell

– At the. g., invading virus infecting cell

В© 2012 Pearson Education Inc.

Figure of sixteen. 1 A resting lymphocyte

Lymphocyte

Red blood cellular

Elements of Adaptable Immunity

• Lymphatic System- major part of immune system

system

–

A part of the circulatory system that displays tissues of the body pertaining to foreign antigens

– Consists of lymphatic vessels, lymphatic skin cells, tissues,

and organs

– Clear liquid flowing through lymphatic boats is called

lymph made of white-colored blood skin cells (lymphocytes) that helps

the body deal with infection

– Lymph is comparable to blood plasma and comes from the via fluid released out from blood vessels in surrounding cells

В© 2012 Pearson Education Inc.

Figure 16. 2 The lymphatic system-overview

Aspects of Adaptive Immunity

• The Tissues and Organs from the Lymphatic

System

– Lymphoid organs

– Primary lymphoid organs

– Red bone fragments marrow

– Thymus

– Secondary lymphoid organs

– Lymph nodes

– Spleen

– Tonsils

– Mucosa-associated lymphatic tissue (MALT)

В© 2012 Pearson Education Incorporation.

Elements of Adaptive Immunity

• Antigens

– Properties of antigens

– Molecules the entire body recognizes since foreign and

worthy of strike

– Identified by three-dimensional parts called

epitopes

– Include various microbe components as well as

proteins of viruses, fungus, and other harmful microrganisms

– Meals and dust could also contain antigenic particles

В© 2012 Pearson Education Incorporation.

The Nature of Antigens

• Respond to antigens varies depending on type

– Proteins and polysaccharrides generally generate strong

response; lipids weakened

– Little molecules usually not antigenic

– Terms antigenic and immunogenic used alternately

to describe potential of antigen to generate immune response

• Epitopes trigger response

– Named antigenic determinants

– Parts of macromolecules

– E. g., 10 or so amino acids;

three-dimensional shapes

– Bacterial cell has multitude

of different epitopes

Antibodies

Epitopes

(antigenic

determinants)

Bacterial cell

Epitopes

(antigenic

determinants)

Aspects of Adaptive Immunity

• M Lymphocytes (B Cells) and Antibodies

– Arise and mature in the red bone marrow

– Located primarily inside the spleen, lymph nodes,

and MALT

– Small percentage of M cells flows in the

blood

– Main function is a secretion of antibodies

В© 2012 Pearson Education Incorporation.

Elements of Adaptive Immunity

• B Lymphocytes (B Cells) and Antibodies

– B-cell receptor (BCR) is membrane-bound version of any Bcell's certain antibody; binding antigen sets off response – Usually demands confirmation by helper To cell

– Each M lymphocyte offers multiple clones of the B cell

receptor

– The BCR is extremely specific

– Two varying regions of the BCR form the antigenbinding sites – Each BCR acknowledges only one epitope

– Individual's repertoire of BCRs has the ability to of

recognizing millions of several epitopes...



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